At the top you see a green triangle and "Local Windows Debugger". After that there is a combobox that says "Debug". Change the "Debug" combobox to read "Release".
Then choose "Build", "Build Solution" from the menu (or just press F7).
At the bottom of the screen you will see the compiler output. If anything is wrong it will tell you.
Otherwise it will say your project name and where it saved the EXE. For example:
MyProg.vcxproj -> c:\users\michael\documents\visual studio 2012\Projects\MyProg\Release\MyProg.exe
In an ideal world, all you need to do is give your friends the exe. But if you have used any shared libraries other than the standard stuff, you will need to also find them and give them to your friends.