It looks like you haven't studied arrays above basic declaration of character arrays so I'll give you a crash course.
First of all you can make an array out of anything you want, not just char.
For example you can make an int array with 10 elements like this: int array;
Next, you can change individual elements using array[<index>] = value
array = 5;
array = 10;
array = 15;
array = 20;
array = 25;
array = 30;
array = 35;
array = 40;
array = 45;
array = 50;
The point of arrays is that you can contract above by using a loop like this:
for (int i=0; i<10; ++i)
array[i] = 5 * (i + 1);
You can even load a number from std::cin into an element like this:
std::cin >> array[i];
And of course you can print out an element too.
std::cout << array[i];
And you can read all elements or print all elements from an array using a for loop which I leave you as an exercise.
There is practically no difference
between an array and individually naming every variable array1 array2 array3...
Except that you get massive advantage by being able to put a formula
as the index of a variable inside  brackets.
Of course, everything so far doesn't only apply to int arrays, it applies to any
kind of arrays (even char arrays).
You can read more here: http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/arrays/
is nothing more than an array that you can easily manipulate, put elements into, delete elements from, etc.
It's a bit hard to change the size of an array for example, but with std::vectors it's very easy.