A range exception is an exception thrown by the STL's containers. This exception is thrown when an iterator, for example, exceeds the upper-bound index of some container. For instance, let's say you had a "std::vector" with 6 elements -- the upper-bound index would be 5, and attempting to access the 6th element will cause the container to throw a "std::out_of_range" exception to indicate the error.
An "exception type" is the type of exception that was raised. In C++, exceptions can be of any type, but in the standard library, exceptions come in the form of "struct"s which derive from "std::exception". Therefore, the type of exception is the type used to represent the exception as well as the name if it has one. Here are some examples: