### **p : pointer how????

 ``1234567891011121314`` ``````#include #include void main() { clrscr(); static int a[]={0,1,2,3,4}; static int *p[]={a,a+2,a+1,a+4,a+3}; int **ptr; ptr=p; **++ptr; cout<<**ptr<<" "<
Here p is an array of pointers. And ptr is a double pointer to array a.
In Line no. 8, ptr is pointing to same array pointed by p which is array a.
In line no.9, actually dereferencing ptr twice makes no difference as its value is not being taken by anything. So, the outcome of line 9 is equal to,
++ptr

This makes ptr point to second element of the array of p which is a+2.

So, after line 9, we see that,
in array a, we have {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 }
in p we have {a, a+2, a+1, a+4, a+3}
in ptr we have p+1 which holds address of a+2 which in turn has value 2.
So, the output is,
**ptr is 2,
as ptr is pointing to p+1, ptr-p is nothing but 1. These two are pointers. So their difference is unsigned long.
And *ptr is *(p+1) which is *((a+1)+1) which is *(a+2) which is 2. So *ptr-a is *(a+2) - *a is 2
By the way function main usually is declared as

int main( int argc, char *argv[] )

This declaration is fully equivalent to

int main( int argc, char **argv )

Let assume that you run your program from the command line passing to it parameters

MyProg 123 456

How to output on the console the second character of the second parameter that is the digit 5?

The code can look the following way

 ``1234567891011`` ``````#include int main( int argc, char **argv ) { if ( 3 <= argc ) { std::cout << *++*++argv << std::endl; } return 0; }``````

The equivalent expression to *++*++argv will be argv[1][1]

EDIT: Oh, I made a mistake and nobody pointed it out.

As the first parameter passed to program is the program name, then to display the digit 5 in the second explicitly specified parameter the expression shall be

*++*++++argv

and the equivalent expression will be

argv[2][1]

Truly speaking the second expression is not fully equivalent to the first expression because the first expression has a side effect: it changes argv[2].

So if to check their equivalence the order of using shall be: firstly the second expression is used because it chnges nothing and only then the first expression

For example

 ``123456789101112`` ``````#include int main( int argc, char **argv ) { if ( 3 <= argc ) { std::cout << argv[2][1] << std::endl; // shall be before the below expression std::cout << *++*++++argv << std::endl; } return 0; }``````

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