Let me first say that I am not knowledgeable about this field, but just a few thoughts.
1. Google "screen readers for the blind". There are several free software packages out there. Search for reviews and then download a few and try them out. Perhaps you could set aside some practice time every day using a blindfold mask like this:
The task sounds daunting, but as devonrevenge
said above the brain is very adaptable, as evidenced by the fact that a small child learns language just by listening and yet no one knows how, not even the linguists. The most intelligent and powerful (not the fastest) computer is not based on silicon, but the one based on carbon that designed and created the silicon computer. The human brain can accomplish remarkable things, even things we might think beforehand to be impossible.
2. Contact the personnel departments of some of the major software companies, Microsoft, Apple, Google, IBM etc., and ask if they have any blind programmers and if so, what accommodations they use (hardware and software). Also ask if any of their blind programmers would be willing to email you to describe their experiences and opinions. As you did in your original post, tell them of your love of programming and your concerns about how difficult it might be if you eventually go blind. Hopefully you will touch a responsive empathetic chord, just as you did here with your original post.
God bless you and best wishes with your health and future.