Gedit, Geany or QTC (especially if I want code completion at the time) is what I use when I need an IDE, although most of the time I just use nano and background it because I run most of my app's through the terminal anyway :P.
You won't find a Visual Studio for Linux, the IDE's aren't that specific, and Visual Studio as you know it now is the product of 20 years of development. However, you coulld take a look at Eclipse. It's probably most Visual Studio-like in terms of the edit/compile/debug cycle. Unlike visual studio, it has loads of plugins that do interesting and useful things (like GIT integration).
And why did you ask about Terminal if you have no interest in it?