You're referring to metafiles and metadata. Those stats you list aren't actually part of the text file itself.
This goes beyond Windows itself and gets into the inner workings of the NTFS (NT File System).
Suggested reading: https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/askcore/2013/03/01/where-did-my-space-go/
When you format a hard drive, you don't get access to all of its space. A percentage of that space is used by the file system itself to store metadata so that the file system can keep track of its own files for accessing/modifying/deleting/etc. This also handles NTFS security descriptors for access control.
To view/edit this "metadata", you need to use a "section editor". Do a search of "section editor ntfs" for some results. I have not used these and will not endorse any, maybe someone else on this forum has...
Specifically, information like filenames, filesizes, modification dates, are stored in the Master File Table ($MFT). (Also note, "filetypes" aren't actually a thing. That's just information that Windows gives you based on it reading the arbitrary extension of the filename, if any. Those strings are stored somewhere in the registry, but not per file.)
Now... for the meat of your question. How do you actually correctly edit this thing?
I don't know the inner-workings of the NTFS format. Again, maybe another person on this forum does. But it comes down to you editing NTFS system files. I would start by reading through NTFS guides, such as http://ntfs.com/ntfs-system-files.htm
Can Windows even handle a file if it can't find certain metadata about it? Will Windows just fill in default metadata for files it finds that don't have metadata? Is messing with this stuff really worth it to save a few bytes? I have no idea. But if you wish to explore more, hopefully the suggestions I linked might be of value.
Mess something up while trying to edit the $MFT, and you'll brick your drive (practice with Virtual Machines).