ofstream: Stream class to write on files
ifstream: Stream class to read from files
fstream: Stream class to both read and write from/to files.
ostream. We have already used objects whose types were these classes:
cinis an object of class
coutis an object of class
ostream. Therefore, we have already been using classes that are related to our file streams. And in fact, we can use our file streams the same way we are already used to use
cout, with the only difference that we have to associate these streams with physical files. Let's see an example:
[file example.txt] Writing this to a file.
example.txtand inserts a sentence into it in the same way we are used to do with
cout, but using the file stream
myfile) and any input or output operation performed on this stream object will be applied to the physical file associated to it.
open (filename, mode);
filenameis a string representing the name of the file to be opened, and
modeis an optional parameter with a combination of the following flags:
|Open for input operations.|
|Open for output operations.|
|Open in binary mode.|
|Set the initial position at the end of the file.|
If this flag is not set, the initial position is the beginning of the file.
|All output operations are performed at the end of the file, appending the content to the current content of the file.|
|If the file is opened for output operations and it already existed, its previous content is deleted and replaced by the new one.|
|). For example, if we want to open the file
example.binin binary mode to add data we could do it by the following call to member function
openmember functions of classes
fstreamhas a default mode that is used if the file is opened without a second argument:
|class||default mode parameter|
|ios::in | ios::out|
ios::outare automatically and respectively assumed, even if a mode that does not include them is passed as second argument to the
openmember function (the flags are combined).
fstream, the default value is only applied if the function is called without specifying any value for the mode parameter. If the function is called with any value in that parameter the default mode is overridden, not combined.
openmember function and has the exact same parameters as this member. Therefore, we could also have declared the previous
myfileobject and conduct the same opening operation in our previous example by writing:
is_open. This member function returns a
truein the case that indeed the stream object is associated with an open file, or
close. This member function takes flushes the associated buffers and closes the file:
ios::binaryflag is not included in their opening mode. These files are designed to store text and thus all values that are input or output from/to them can suffer some formatting transformations, which do not necessarily correspond to their literal binary value.
[file example.txt] This is a line. This is another line.
This is a line. This is another line.
trueif the stream is ready for more operations, and
falseif either the end of the file has been reached or if some other error occurred.
good, which checks whether the stream is ready for input/output operations, other member functions exist to check for specific states of a stream (all of them return a
trueif a reading or writing operation fails. For example, in the case that we try to write to a file that is not open for writing or if the device where we try to write has no space left.
truein the same cases as
bad(), but also in the case that a format error happens, like when an alphabetical character is extracted when we are trying to read an integer number.
trueif a file open for reading has reached the end.
falsein the same cases in which calling any of the previous functions would return
true. Note that
badare not exact opposites (
goodchecks more state flags at once).
clear()can be used to reset the state flags.
istream, keeps an internal get position with the location of the element to be read in the next input operation.
ostream, keeps an internal put position with the location where the next element has to be written.
fstream, keeps both, the get and the put position, like
pos_type, which is a type representing the current get position (in the case of
tellg) or the put position (in the case of
seekg ( position );
seekp ( position );
position(counting from the beginning of the file). The type for this parameter is the same as the one returned by functions
tellp: the member type
seekg ( offset, direction );
seekp ( offset, direction );
offsetis of the member type
directionis of type
seekdir, which is an enumerated type that determines the point from where offset is counted from, and that can take any of the following values:
|offset counted from the beginning of the stream|
|offset counted from the current position|
|offset counted from the end of the stream|
size is: 40 bytes.
streamposis a specific type used for buffer and file positioning and is the type returned by
file.tellg(). Values of this type can safely be subtracted from other values of the same type, and can also be converted to an integer type large enough to contain the size of the file.
>>) and functions like
getlineis not efficient, since we do not need to format any data and data is likely not formatted in lines.
read. The first one (
write) is a member function of
readis a member function of
ifstream). Objects of class
fstreamhave both. Their prototypes are:
memory_blockis of type
char), and represents the address of an array of bytes where the read data elements are stored or from where the data elements to be written are taken. The
sizeparameter is an integer value that specifies the number of characters to be read or written from/to the memory block.
the entire file content is in memory
ios::ateflag, which means that the get pointer will be positioned at the end of the file. This way, when we call to member
tellg(), we will directly obtain the size of the file.
streambuf. This buffer object may represent a memory block that acts as an intermediary between the stream and the physical file. For example, with an
ofstream, each time the member function <cpde>put</code> (which writes a single character) is called, the character may be inserted in this intermediate buffer instead of being written directly to the physical file with which the stream is associated.
sync()causes an immediate synchronization. This function returns an
intvalue equal to -1 if the stream has no associated buffer or in case of failure. Otherwise (if the stream buffer was successfully synchronized) it returns