does fstream inherit from ifstream or ofstream or both OR is it the other way around do ifstream and ofstream inherit from fstream?
3) when I include the fstream header file I can use both ofstream and ifstream types but when I include the ostream and ifstream header I file can't use either ifstream or ostream it pretty much tells me it can't find the ifstream or ofstream header file
how come we iobase and ostream classes constructor protected basically not allowing us to create an instance of them?
Because the people who designed them decided that you shouldn't be allowed to create an instance of them, because they aren't useful to you. They don't do anything. They're meant to be used to build useful classes, via inheritance.