__gxx_personality_v0 is used in the exception handling of the C++ library. MinGW can support a couple different exception models on the x86: sjlj (setjmp/longjmp) or DWARF (DW2). As far as I know, which model will be used is compiled into the compiler - it's not something that can be selected with a command line option.
The sjlj exception model will link to __gxx_personality_sj0, the DW2 exception model links to __gxx_personality_v0. It seems like your compiler is building for the dw2 exception model, but at runtime it's finding a libstdc++-6.dll that was built with the sjlj model. See if you have multiple versions of libstdc++-6.dll on youR system, and see if copying another one to the same directory as your program fixes the problem.
You can use nm libstdc++-6.dll | grep personality to see which exception 'personality' the DLL is using.
I had this happen to me with SFML and Mingw as well. You need to update the instance of libstdc++-6.dll in %SYSTEMROOT%\system32 with the copy from ..\mingw\bin. Rename the origional copy of the DLL instead of over writing it in case you find that you have to roll back for what ever reason.