if you are not writting commercial software qt is the best option, easy to install and learn and very powerfull, if you are trying to write commercial software use wxwidgets of some microsoft stuff, i really dont like microsoft products but it is necessary to learn it...
mfc is old and bad, maybe try winforms (it uses .net) or winapi (difficult at beggining)
As you proposed that it was for Windows OS, I would strongly recommend you learning WinAPI as htroyo quoted "difficult at beginning" he is very much right.
After becoming quite confident with Windows API programming you will be able to make professional Applications, without any dependencies.
The reason I do not use any 3rd party Libraraies and such is mainly due to the fact in Industry if there is a Error\bug in the Library you will have to depend on the 3rd party developers to fix the issue and depending on other Programmers will hinder the project therefore use the native API.